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Kerala reports India’s first monkeypox case

Kerala reports India’s first monkeypox case

Subject- Science & Technology

Source- The Hindu

Reference

  • The first known lab-confirmed case of monkeypox in India has been reported in a 35yearold man in Kerala, who reached the State capital three days ago from the UAE.

About Monkeypox

  • It is a viral zoonotic disease (transmission from animals to humans) and is identified as a pox-like disease among monkeys hence it is named Monkeypox. It is endemic to Nigeria.
  • It is caused by the monkeypox virus, a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae.
  • The natural host of the virus remains undefined. But the disease has been reported in many animals.
  • Animals known to be sources of Monkeypox virus include monkeys and apes, a variety of rodents (including rats, mice, squirrels and prairie dogs) and rabbits.

Occurrence of Disease

  • The infection was first discovered in 1958
  • The first human case was recorded in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

Symptoms

  • Infected people break out in a rash that looks a lot like chicken pox. But the fever, malaise, and headache from Monkeypox are usually more severe than in chicken pox infection.
  • In the early stage of the disease, Monkeypox can be distinguished from smallpox because the lymph gland gets enlarged.

Transmission

  • Primary infection is through direct contact with the blood, bodily fluids, or cutaneous or mucosal lesions of an infected animal. Eating inadequately cooked meat of infected animals is also a risk factor.
  • Human-to-human transmission can result from close contact with infected respiratory tract secretions, skin lesions of an infected person or objects recently contaminated by patient fluids or lesion materials.
  • Transmission can also occur by inoculation or via the placenta (congenital monkeypox).

Vulnerability

  • It spreads rapidly and can cause one out of ten deaths if infected

Prevention

  • There is no safe, proven treatment for monkeypox yet.
  • The WHO recommends supportive treatment depending on the symptoms.
  • Awareness is important for the prevention and control of the infection.

Treatment and Vaccine

  • There is no specific treatment or vaccine available for Monkeypox infection. In the past, the anti-smallpox vaccine was shown to be 85% effective in preventing Monkeypox.
  • But the world was declared free of smallpox in 1980 so the vaccine isn’t widely available anymore.

 


 

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