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Daily Current Affairs- 15 July 2022

India’s imports from China rose to a record in first half of 2022

Subject- Economy

Source- The Hindu

Reference

  • India’s imports from China reached a record $57.51 billion in the first half of the year, according to China’s trade figures.

India-China Bilateral Trade

  • China is India’s largest trading partner.
  • Major commodities imported from China into India were: electronic equipment; machines, engines, pumps; organic chemicals; fertilizers; iron and steel; plastics; iron or steel products; gems, precious metals, coins; ships, boats; medical, and technical equipment.
  • Major commodities exported from India to China were: cotton; gems, precious metals, coins; copper; ores, slag, ash; organic chemicals; salt, sulfur, stone, cement; machines, engines, and pumps.

Recent measures to curb imports from China

  • Blame it on the pandemic and the border dispute, but the result is the same: some Indian businesses are boycotting China.
  • The government is now asking Indian e-commerce companies like Flipkart and Amazon India to label country of origin for all products sold on its websites.
  • The govt banned many Chinese mobile applications, including top social media platforms such as TikTok, Helo and WeChat and games such as PUBG.

 

 

Fiscal Deficit

Subject- Economy

Source- The Hindu

Reference

  • India’s macro risks have receded in recent weeks and concerns about the fiscal deficit target being breached may be misplaced, the Finance Ministry asserted on Thursday, while conceding that the current account deficit (CAD) could, however, deteriorate this year mainly due to rising trade deficits.

Fiscal Deficit

  • The difference between total revenue and total expenditure of the government is termed as fiscal deficit. It is an indication of the total borrowings needed by the government.
  • The fiscal deficit can arise either due to revenue expenses overshooting income or increase in capital expenditure.
  • A fiscal deficit is usually calculated and expressed as a percentage of a country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
  • A deficit is usually financed through borrowing from either the central bank of the country or raising money from capital markets by issuing different instruments like treasury bills and bonds.

Calculation of fiscal deficit

  • The fiscal deficit can be calculated by marking out the difference between the total income and the total expenditure by the government.
  • The total income of the government is calculated by including all taxes, non-debt capital receipts, and other ways of revenue except for borrowings. To calculate the fiscal deficit
  • Fiscal Deficit = (Revenue Expenditure + Capital Expenditure) – (Revenue Receipts + Capital Receipts)
  • In the simplified form the formula reads out as:
  • Fiscal Deficit = Total expenditure — Total receipts excluding borrowings
  • Most of the economies around the globe, including India, run under a fiscal deficit, which means the expenditure by the government is more than its income

What is trade deficit?

  • Simply put, the trade “balance” of a country shows the difference between what it earns from its exports and what it pays for its imports.
  • If this number is in negative – that is, the total value of goods imported by a country is more than the total value of goods exported by that country – then it is referred to as a “trade deficit”.
  • If India has a trade deficit with China, then China would necessarily have a “trade surplus” with India.

What is Current Account Deficit (CAD)?

  • It is the shortfall between the money flowing in on exports, and the money flowing out on imports.
  • It measures the gap between the money received into and sent out of the country on the trade of goods and services and also the transfer of money from domestically-owned factors of production abroad.
  • It is slightly different from the Balance of Trade, which measures only the gap in earnings and expenditure on exports and imports of goods and services.
  • Whereas, the current account also factors in the payments from domestic capital deployed overseas.
  • For example, rental income from an Indian owning a house in the UK would be computed in the Current Account, but not in the Balance of Trade.

 

Fundamental Duties

Subject- Polity

Source- The Hindu

Reference

  • The Supreme Court on Thursday allowed the Centre’s request for two months’ time to file a reply to a petition seeking the enforcement of fundamental duties of citizens, including patriotism and unity of the nation, through “comprehensive, and welldefined laws”.

About Fundamental Duties

  • The idea of Fundamental Duties is inspired from the Constitution of Russia.
  • These were incorporated in Part IV-A of the Constitution by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1976 on the recommendations of Swaran Singh Committee.
  • Originally 10 in number, one more duty was added through the 86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002. All the eleven duties are listed in Article 51-A of the Constitution (the sole Article in Part-IV-A).
  • The fundamental duties serve as a reminder to citizens that while enjoying their rights, they have also to be quite conscious of duties they owe to their country, their society and to their fellow-citizens.
  • However, like the Directive Principles, the duties are also non-justiciable in nature.

List of Fundamental Duties

  1. To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;
  2. To cherish and follow the noble ideals that inspired the national struggle for freedom;
  3. To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
  4. To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
  5. To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities and to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
  6. To value and preserve the rich heritage of the country’s composite culture;
  7. To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures;
  8. To develop scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;
  9. To safeguard public property and to abjure violence;
  10. To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement; and
  11. To provide opportunities for education to his child or ward between the age of six and fourteen years (added by the 86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002).

 

Consent of AG on Contempt Proceedings

Subject- Polity

Source- The Hindu

Reference

  • Attorney General K.K. Venugopal did not consent to a plea to initiate criminal contempt proceedings against former Delhi High Court judge S.N. Dhingra and two senior advocates for criticising the Supreme Court over its oral observations against suspended BJP leader Nupur Sharma.

Consent of AG on Contempt Proceedings

  • Motion: In the case of the Supreme Court, the Attorney General or the Solicitor General, and in the case of High Courts, the Advocate General, may bring in a motion before the court for initiating a case of criminal contempt.
  • Consent in writing: However, if the motion is brought by any other person, the consent in writing of the Attorney General or the Advocate General is required.
  • Specify the contempt: The motion or reference made for initiating the case will have to specify the contempt of which the person charged is alleged to be guilty.

Is AG’s consent mandatory for all contempt of court cases?

  • The AG’s consent is mandatory when a private citizen wants to initiate a case of contempt of court against a person.
  • Before such a plea can be filed, the Attorney General must sign off on the complaint, determining if it requires the attention of the court at all.

What happens if AG denies consent?

  • If AG denies consent, petition ends there itself.
  • However, complainant can urge the court to take suomotu cognizance.

What happens after the AG has granted consent?

  • After the consent, notice is served personally to the person against whom the proceedings are sought to be initiated by the court.
  • If the court decides not to serve the notice personally, the court has to record the reasons for it.
  • If the court is satisfied that the alleged contemnor is likely to abscond or evade judicial proceedings, it can order attachment of property of a value that it deems reasonable.
  • Once the notice is served, the alleged contemnor may file an affidavit in support of his defence, explaining the nature and circumstances of her remarks.
  • Then the case has to be heard by at least two judge benches which will take into account any evidence available to check the affidavit and pass appropriate orders.

 

 

Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray

Subject- Art & Culture

Source- The Hindu

Reference

  • Ministry of Culture along with Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi and Vijnana Bharati (VIBHA) organised a curtain raiser for two days International Conference on the “Contributions of Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray as a Chemist and Freedom Fighter” at University of Delhi.

About Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray

  • A Professor of Chemistry, a pioneer in the field of pharmaceutical industry in India who started making chemicals at home
  • He was born on 2nd August 1861 in Rural-Kathipara, a village in the District of Khulna (now in Bangladesh).
  • He set up Bengal Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals as an individual initiative in a laboratory in 1892 to foster a spirit of entrepreneurship among the youth of Bengal.

Contributions

  • His contribution to Indian industry was great.
  • Directly or indirectly he helped to start many other factories.
  • Textile mills, soap factories, sugar factories, chemical industries, ceramic factories and publishing houses were set up at the time with his active cooperation.
  • He was the driving force behind the industrialization of the country, which began at that time.

Literary Works

  • He authored, among other books, the ‘History of Hindu Chemistry – From the Earliest Times to the Middle of the Sixteenth Century AD’.
  • He published a paper in 1896 on the preparation of a new stable chemical compound: mercurous nitrite.
  • It made way for a large number of investigative papers on nitrites and hyponitrites of different metals, and on nitrites of ammonia and organic amines.
  • In 1932 he wrote his autobiography in English and named it ‘The Life and Experience of a Bengali Chemist’.

 

District Climate Change Mission

Subject- Environment and Ecology

Source- The Hindu

Reference

  • The Tamil Nadu government has established District Climate Change Missions in all 38 districts.
  • The missions will be headed by the Collectors as Mission Directors. The District Forest Officers will function as Climate Officers.

How will it work?

  • The Collectors will have to prepare district-level climate change mitigation and adaptation plans, build capacity and provide inputs for low-carbon, climate-resilient development plans.
  • Another key deliverable is strengthening the ‘Meendum Manjappai’ campaign against the use of single-use plastics. The Collectors will also work towards strengthening Climate Smart Villages and creating bio-shields in coastal areas.
  • The government has initially sanctioned ₹3.80 crore for 38 district missions which will function under the supervision of the Tamil Nadu Climate Change Mission.

Significance

  • The missions will help strengthen the government’s climate response at the grassroots.
  • The missions will create strong policy support across all sectors of governance, devise strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and bench-mark industries to move towards green manufacturing.
  • They will also promote eco-friendly technologies, such as solar and wind energy technologies, biodegradable packaging and e-vehicles.

 

Kerala reports India’s first monkeypox case

Subject- Science & Technology

Source- The Hindu

Reference

  • The first known lab-confirmed case of monkeypox in India has been reported in a 35yearold man in Kerala, who reached the State capital three days ago from the UAE.

About Monkeypox

  • It is a viral zoonotic disease (transmission from animals to humans) and is identified as a pox-like disease among monkeys hence it is named Monkeypox. It is endemic to Nigeria.
  • It is caused by the monkeypox virus, a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae.
  • The natural host of the virus remains undefined. But the disease has been reported in many animals.
  • Animals known to be sources of Monkeypox virus include monkeys and apes, a variety of rodents (including rats, mice, squirrels and prairie dogs) and rabbits.

Occurrence of Disease

  • The infection was first discovered in 1958
  • The first human case was recorded in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

Symptoms

  • Infected people break out in a rash that looks a lot like chicken pox. But the fever, malaise, and headache from Monkeypox are usually more severe than in chicken pox infection.
  • In the early stage of the disease, Monkeypox can be distinguished from smallpox because the lymph gland gets enlarged.

Transmission

  • Primary infection is through direct contact with the blood, bodily fluids, or cutaneous or mucosal lesions of an infected animal. Eating inadequately cooked meat of infected animals is also a risk factor.
  • Human-to-human transmission can result from close contact with infected respiratory tract secretions, skin lesions of an infected person or objects recently contaminated by patient fluids or lesion materials.
  • Transmission can also occur by inoculation or via the placenta (congenital monkeypox).

Vulnerability

  • It spreads rapidly and can cause one out of ten deaths if infected

Prevention

  • There is no safe, proven treatment for monkeypox yet.
  • The WHO recommends supportive treatment depending on the symptoms.
  • Awareness is important for the prevention and control of the infection.

Treatment and Vaccine

  • There is no specific treatment or vaccine available for Monkeypox infection. In the past, the anti-smallpox vaccine was shown to be 85% effective in preventing Monkeypox.
  • But the world was declared free of smallpox in 1980 so the vaccine isn’t widely available anymore.

 


 

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